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Sport Science: Reliable sources and peer review

Peer-reviewed articles

Peer-reviewed journal articles are often considered the most reliable sources for academic research. The peer-review process is a critical quality control mechanism that scholarly journals use to ensure the quality and accuracy of published articles.

Editors and publishers of scholarly journals select experts, known as peer-reviewers, to evaluate the presentation of the subject matter, research methods, academic context, and references used in the article. Peer-reviewers are always specialists in the same field as the author of the article in question.

Peer-reviewers provide feedback and comments on the article, which the author must address to have their article published in the particular journal. After the author revises the article, it undergoes further evaluation, and it may be approved for publication, rejected, or receive additional comments.

Typically, multiple peer-reviewers evaluate each article, and the author's identity is kept anonymous to the peer-reviewers. Additionally, peer-reviewers do not receive payment for their work.

In summary, peer-review is a rigorous quality control process that ensures that scholarly articles published in journals meet high standards of accuracy and reliability. As a result, peer-reviewed journal articles are highly valued as authoritative sources of information in academic research.


Reliable sources can come in various forms besides peer-reviewed journals, including books and web pages.

While general books are not typically peer-reviewed, academic books like textbooks are usually authored by experts in the relevant field and are considered trustworthy sources. These books undergo a quality control process at publishers, where one or more editors manage the book's publication and provide recommendations on enhancing it. University presses, such as the University of Iceland Press, Oxford University Press, and Yale University Press, typically send manuscripts of scholarly books to peer-reviewers. However, the peer-review process for books is typically different from that of scholarly journal articles. It can also be challenging to determine whether individual books have undergone peer-review. Nevertheless, most university presses and publishers of academic or scholarly books have quality processes in place to ensure the reliability of their publications.


While websites are not peer-reviewed, not all can be considered reliable sources. However, websites hosted by public institutions usually meet the criteria for being reliable sources.

Evaluation criteria for website reliability:

  1. Author and publisher credibility:

The credibility of the author and publisher is an important factor in determining the quality and reliability of a website. Students should verify the author's qualifications and expertise in the field, such as their academic degree, professional experience, or other relevant credentials. To verify their identity and credentials, they should also look for the author's contact information, such as an email address, phone number, or social media profile.

In addition to the author, students should also research the publisher and the website's domain name to check its legitimacy. Websites hosted by reputable institutions, such as universities, government agencies, or professional organizations, are generally considered more reliable than those hosted by individuals or unknown organizations. Students should also check the first part of the website's URL, such as ".edu" for educational institutions or ".gov" for government entities, which can provide a clue to the website's credibility.

  1. Unbiased discussion:

The website's purpose and intended audience can also indicate its reliability and quality. Students should determine whether the website is intended to sell products or services, express a particular opinion or agenda, educate, or inform the public. Websites aiming to educate or inform the public are generally considered more reliable than those with a commercial or political agenda.

Students should also check whether the information presented on the website is objective and unbiased, or whether it presents a particular perspective or agenda. They should check whether the website cites sources to support its claims and whether it acknowledges counterarguments or alternative perspectives. They should also check whether the language used on the website is neutral and free from bias or prejudice.

  1. Freshness and quality of information:

The freshness and quality of the information presented on the website is another important factor in evaluating its reliability and quality. Students should check the date when the website was last updated to ensure that the information is current and relevant. They should also verify the accuracy and reliability of the sources cited on the website, such as whether they are peer-reviewed or from reputable publications.

Students should also check the links to other websites to ensure that they are active and reliable. Broken links or links to low-quality websites can indicate that the website's content is not well-researched or maintained.

  1. Design and usability:

The design and usability of the website can also affect its quality and reliability. Students should check whether the website design and layout are professional and easy to navigate. They should also determine whether the website is easy to read and whether the content is organized and structured in a logical and coherent manner. Websites that are poorly designed or difficult to navigate can indicate that the website's content is not well-researched or maintained.

  1. Peer review:

Peer review is a process used to evaluate the quality and reliability of academic and scholarly publications. Websites that have undergone peer review by experts in the relevant field are generally considered more reliable than those that have not. Students should check whether the website has been peer-reviewed by experts in the relevant field, and whether it adheres to the standards and guidelines for scholarly publishing. They should also look for information on the website about the quality process for articles or other content published on the website.